Scientific studies and results observed by users of CBD oil confirm that cannabidiol oil has many benefits, including the chronic pain relief, decrease in anxiety and depression-related disorders, reduction of nausea, etc. But before we get into the beneficial effects of cannabidiol oil on physical and mental health, it’s important to understand where it comes from.
How is CBD oil made? It all starts with the plant from which it is extracted: hemp. To understand the manufacturing process of CBD oil, follow the guide
Cultivation and harvesting of hemp
To get a cannabidiol oil of superior quality, it is imperative that the industrial hemp plant from which it is extracted is of excellent quality as well. Hemp production begins with planting genetically stable varieties from a good strain and grown in suitable soil.
The composition of the soil in which the hemp is important, just like its pH, which must be between 6 and 7.5. The earth, composed of a homogeneous mixture of sand and silt, must be well aerated and generously watered. The location in which the hemp is grown is essential, because the plant needs sunlight, at a rate of at least a dozen hours per day. As hemp cultivation methods vary from country to country, it is important to choose an oil that is made in a location where current regulations are followed by the growers. This makes it possible in particular to ensure the quality of the hemp plant, whatever the species (sativa or indica). When the hemp plants mature, usually after 4 months, they can be harvested.
How is CBD oil extracted?
There are several methods of extracting CBD:
- Liquid solvent extraction
- CO2 extraction
- Food oil extraction
Liquid solvent extraction
The extraction of CBD by liquid solvents involves the use of ethanol, butane, propane, isopropyl, or alcohol. This method is relatively inexpensive and quick to perform. On the other hand, it is one of the more dangerous CBD oil extraction methods, due to the highly flammable content of the solvents used. The method is based on dissolving the vegetable waxes of the cannabis plant, which contain nutrients. These are the cannabinoids, but also the chlorophyll which are extracted from the plant, hence the bitter taste of certain products resulting from this manufacturing process. The flowers and other elements of the hemp plant are placed in a container. The solvent is poured over these plant materials in order to extract the cannabinoids. These are then recovered by evaporation and are in the form of concentrated oil. If the manufacturing process CBD oil by liquid solvents is dangerous, it presents a
second major drawback: if the solvent residues are not completely removed during the evaporation step, they can be toxic.
Also known as “supercritical fluid extraction” (SFE), this type of extraction of CBD uses carbon dioxide (CO2), a colorless, odorless gas exposed to extremely low temperatures and high enough pressure to change its shape and make it liquid. The plant of cannabis is then exposed to this liquid form of CO2, the properties of which dissolve certain plant materials. This process causes a release of the active compounds of the hemp in the solvent, which then passes into another chamber, the temperature and pressure of which are controlled in order to better separate the cannabinoids and the terpenes, before transforming the CO2 back into gas.
Food oil extraction
Another way to extract CBD is to use edible oil, such as olive oil or sesame oil for example. The advantage of this process is the contribution of the organoleptic properties specific to the oils used. In addition, this way of extracting the CBD oil allows a final result without residue. The process of extracting CBD from olive oil is the oldest in existence. The method is simple, inexpensive and gives good results. It begins with the decarboxylation (by heating) of the plant raw materials at the desired temperature for a specified period of time, in order to activate the chemicals contained in the plant. The edible oil and the vegetable matter are combined and then reheated. This is when the cannabinoids are extracted. The edible oil is not evaporated, and therefore the resulting extract is not as concentrated as the CBD oil made through other methods. The doses used make it possible to compensate for this. You should know that the extraction of CBD from edible oil has one drawback: the product is perishable. It is therefore advisable to keep CBD oil in a cool, dark place.
What is the best method of extracting CBD?
As with any manufacturing process, each of the methods presented above has its advantages and disadvantages. Specialists and followers cannabidiol oil quality tends to advocate CO2 extraction. This method produces a high concentration of quality CBD. It is also one of the safest extraction methods and leaves no toxic residue.
From extraction to CBD oil
Once the CBD oil is obtained in its raw state, the extract is further refined through a process called ‘overwintering’. This is a step that eliminates all solvents, chlorophyll, waxes and other unwanted lipids, in order to obtain a hemp oil clean and sound containing 70 to 90% of CBD, cannabinoids and terpenes.
Different types of CBD oils can be produced from hemp extract:
– Full spectrum CBD contains all the cannabinoids and natural compounds found in cannabis, such as terpenes and amino acids (including traces of THC)
– Broad spectrum CBD, which is similar in composition to full spectrum CBD, while excluding traces of THC
To note that CBD oil broad spectrum is to add an extra step to the manufacturing process. “Liquid Chromatography” binds to THC selectively, removing it at low temperatures, while other cannabinoids, terpenes and amino acids remain intact.
CBD isolate contains only a pure concentration of CBD (99%) and therefore is presented as an ideal product for people who need high doses of CBD. To produce the CBD isolate, the extract is cooled and then purified as a crystalline isolate, which takes the form of a tasteless white powder.
CBD oil should be extracted from a plant of hemp of good quality. The extraction process CBD oil, you will understand, is just as important as the quality of the plant from which it comes. As such, it is important to ensure that the oil used has undergone a
rigorous manufacturing, to ensure that you have and consume a reliable product of good quality.
Read also: Medicinal cannabis legalized in France in 2020 – the 7 things to know